Historical map of Uppland published in 1785 and engraved by Fredrik Akrel (1748-1804). Uppland (traditionally spelled Upland) borders the Åland Sea to the north and east, Gästrikland to the north-west, Västmanland to the west and Mälaren and Södermanland to the south; it also reaches Dalarna at Tjuvholmen in Färnebofjärden (Dalälven).
Based on archaeological and geological research, Uppland's first settlers are believed to have come from the west across Närke and Västmanland at least 8,000 years ago. Their settlements were on the coastline but, due to land uplift, are now inland. After our ancestors became settled farmers around 6,000 years ago, the number of finds increased. A few Stone Age finds show connections between Uppland, Åland and Finland already during the Stone Age, but also with Norrland as well as with Skåne or Denmark.
A settlement found at Åloppe northwest of Uppsala in 1902 belongs to the Pit Ceramic culture and the Neolithic period. A large number of archaeological finds, mainly from the Late Neolithic and the final part of the Neolithic period, have been found, especially in the central part of western Uppland, which is therefore considered to be the oldest and most densely populated Stone Age settlement in the region.
Bronze Age finds include axes, spearheads and swords, as well as all kinds of jewellery. Gold objects have also been found, for example in Järfälla parish, King Björn's mound at Håga, and in Torstuna parish, which testify to increasing prosperity during the later Bronze Age.
The oldest known occurrences of grain in Uppland (barley from wheat and barley in Old Uppsala) date back to around 500. The great migration has left traces in a grave find in Tibble in Litslena parish from the middle of the 3rd century. The great gold finds, made in Gottröra, Hjälsta and Börstils parishes, the glass objects, the replicas of Roman medals and bracteates, found abundantly in Uppland as well as in the rest of Scandinavia, testify to the prosperity of the people and their lively connections both to the south-east, with Constantinople, and to the south-west, with Belgium and France. Perhaps the most important site in the whole of Scandinavia from this period is Birka in Uppland.
Source reference: Wikipedia (CC BY-SA)